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PARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



Economic Circular No. 38 



Issued November 6, 1918 



WHALES AND PORPOISES AS FOOD. 

With Thirty-Two Recipes. 

About 890 A. D., Othere, a native of Helgoland, voyaged to the 
north, skirting the coast of Norway to the entrance of the White Sea, 
until " he was come as far toward the north as commonly the whale 
hunters used to travel." Even at this early date a fishery for whales 
existed, and during the centuries that have since elapsed the com- 
mercial products of these animals have continued to contribute to 
the comfort and welfare of mankind. At no time, however, have 
all of the products been so fully utilized as now. 

Because of its value for illuminating and lubricating purposes, 
sperm oil continued to be the most important and most valuable of 
the whale products until about 1860. With the substitution of petro- 
leum products and the development of improved methods for ren- 
dering and refining various vegetable oils, the economic value of 
whale oil decreased, and whalebone became the most important 
product of the fishery. This is obtained mainly from the right whale 
and the blue whale or " sulphur-bottom." The bone, which hangs 
from the roof of the mouth, occurs as a series of thin, horny plates 
or blades, several hundred in number, and vary in length to 15 feet. 
These plates are lined on the inner side with bristles which strain 
from the large quantities of water taken into the mouth in feeding, 
the shrimp and other small animals on which the whale feeds. 

When softened with hot water or by heat, whalebone has the prop- 
erty of retaining any given shape, provided it is kept in the desired 
form until cold. Upon this property and its elasticity rests its chief 
value. The uses to which it has been put are numerous ; for example, 
for women's stays, in parasols and umbrellas, as a framework for 
trunks and traveling bags, in fishing rods, whips, shafts, and springs. 

Ambergris, a waxy concretion formed in the intestine of the sperm 
whale, is another extremely valuable substance which is worth ap- 
proximately its weight in gold. As much as $60,000 worth of this 
rare substance has been taken from a single whale. As lumps of this 
substance are occasionally found on the shores or floating on the seas 
frequented by sperm whales, persons acquainted with its value are 
on the watch for it. Every year various substances, suspected of 
being ambergris, are forwarded to the Bureau for identification. It 
was formerly employed as an incense, in cookery, and as a medicine. 
It is now used as a fixitive for the fragrance in fine perfumes. 

Whales yield many other valued products, such as oils of various 
grades, whale amber, which is used in dressing leather to make it 
waterproof, leathers, bone meal, tallow, and glue. However, the em- 

°By Lewis Radcliffe, Assistant in Charge of Statistics and Methods of the Fisheries, 
United States 'Bureau of Fisheries. 

74550°— 18 



!. '.Ponograph 



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<&& 



ployment of whale meat for food, including the use of the hardened 
fat, now gives promise of becoming the most important purpose of 
the whale fishery. 

The largest of the whales, the blue whale, is said to be not only the 
largest living animal, but the largest animal that has ever lived. It 
reaches a length of 87 feet or more and an estimated weight at least 
of 75 tons. A calf, whose mother was 80 feet long, was 25 feet long 
at birth and weighed about 8 tons. Little is known of the length of 
time and manner in which calves feed upon milk, but, from the rate 
of growth of the large whales, it is estimated that the calves are able 
to care for themselves within six months. Of the large whales none, 
except the sperm whale, feeds on fish when other food is obtainable. 
The baleen whales feed upon small crustaceans, especially a small red 
shrimp about three-quarters of an inch long. The quantity eaten by 
a single whale is very great, as many as 4 barrels full have be^n taken 
from the stomach, which was by no means full, of a blue whale. 

Since the whale breathes air, when the animal is below the surface 
it must hold its breath. It can do this for a much longer time than 
the ordinary land mammal — even so long as 45 minutes or an hour. 
The highly heated breath, which has been contained in the lungs 
under pressure, is forcibly expelled into the colder outer air, where 
it condenses, forming a column of steam or vapor. As the nostrils 
do not open into the back of the mouth, but are connected directly 
with the windpipe, a whale can not spout out of the blowholes, 
water which has been taken into its mouth. This provision enables 
the whale to swim with its mouth open when feeding, without danger 
of strangulating. 

Since whales and porpoises are warm-blooded animals, it is neces- 
sary for them to have some protection from the cold comparable to 
the hair or fur on land animals. This is supplied by the thick layer 
of blubber that covers the bodies of these animals. The blubber 
acts as a nonconductor and prevents the heat of the animal's body 
being absorbed by the water. 

Historically speaking, whales and porpoises are one-time land 
mammals, which have taken up life in the water, and their bodily 
activities, although somewhat modified, are nevertheless essentially 
the same as those of horses, cows, or other land mammals, and 
therefore, their flesh is " meat," not " fish." This meat resembles beef 
in texture and appearance, and venison in taste ; but, nevertheless, it 
has a distinctive flavor of its own. For some time it has held an 
important place in the dietary of the Japanese, and is rapidly grow- 
ing in favor in Norway, the United States, and other countries. It 
may be marketed fresh, frozen, corned, or canned. It is cut from 
the whale in chunks which in turn are cut into smaller strips, chilled, 
and packed in boxes for shipment. As it contains no bone or gristle 
there is no waste. 

A chemical analysis of some of the canned whale meat showed it to 
contain about 30 per cent protein, over 6 per cent of fat, and less 
than 2 per cent ash. It contains a certain amount of oil, the taste 
of which may not appeal to some. This may be overcome by soak- 
ing the meat in boiling water with soda before cooking, or by par- 

• See Whale Hunting With Gun and Camera, by Roy Chapman Andrews, D. Appleton & 
Co., New York, 1916, p. 42. 

14 ISIS 



~x 



boiling. This taste is scarcely noticeable in the canned product. 
Many prefer the whale meat panbroiled in the form of a steak. It 
is also excellent for soup stocks, stews, roasts, and curries. Mr. Eoy 
Chapman Andrews states that the humpback whale is probably the 
best species for eating, and that the sei and finback whales also yield 
excellent meat; and he adds that from a humpback about 6 tons of 
edible meat may be obtained ; from a sei whale, 5 tons ; and a finback, 
8 tons. 

Porpoises and dolphins are small whales, the former name being 
usually applied to the round-headed members of the family and the 
latter name to those with pointed snouts or beaks. They are found 
on both our coasts and yield excellent meat, by some preferred to that 
of the whale. It appears that the oily taste, which may be more or 
less objectionable to some, can be avoided by removing the con- 
nective tissue separating the meat from the blubber. 

RECIPES. 

FRESH WHALE. 

1. Marine Vegetable Soup.* 

2\ pounds whale meat. 1 potato. 

1 bay leaf. 2 onions. 
3 sprigs parsley. 2 carrots. 
\ teaspoon pickling spice. I turnip. 

2 quarts water. i cup barley. 
1 teaspoon soda. 

Cut the whale meat into small pieces and put in a soup kettle with the 
chopped bay leaf, parsley, and 1 onion ; add spice and cold water and let stand 
one-half hour. Add the soda, place on back of range, and allow to heat slowly 
to simmering point. Simmer for at least 3£ hours, then strain. Add potato, 
remaining onion, carrots, and turnip, which have been chopped fine, and the 
barley. Simmer for 1 hour. 



2. Stuffed Roast Whale. 



5 pounds whale meat. 
4 tablespoons butter. 
4 onions. 

\ cup seedless raisins. 
1 cup oysters. 



3 cups rice. 

\ teaspoon powdered cinnamon. 

Salt. 

Pepper. 

Celery salt. 



Wash the meat in hot soda water (1 tablespoon soda to 1 quart water) 
and boil in a large vessel for 20 minutes ; remove the scum. Fry the onions, 
raisins, oysters, and rice in the butter in another large vessel, and add cin- 
namon, celery salt, pepper, and salt to taste. Gradually add 1 cup, or more if 
necessary, of the liquor in which the meat was boiled and cook until the rice 
is softened and the mixture of the consistency of turkey dressing. Place the 
mixture on the slice of whale meat, roll and tie ; put in a roaster in a moder- 
ately hot oven and cook until well done, basting frequently with its own liquor. 
Small pieces of salt pork and onion placed on the roast before putting into the 
oven add to the flavor. Serve whole, garnished with parsley and fancy veg- 
etables. 

3. Whale Roast with Rice. 



Si pounds whale meat. 

\ cup rice. 

41 tablespoons tomato juice. 



Salt. 
Pepper. 
Celery salt. 



• Recipes furnished by American Pacific Whaling Co., Bay City, Wash. 



Boil the meat In a little water, taking off the scum. When it is half done 
place it, the rice, and its own broth, in a baking dish — the rice underneath the 
meat ; pour the tomato juice over this and season with salt, pepper, and celery 
salt. Bake in a hot oven until well done and the water evaporated. Serve hot 
with potato or other vegetable salad. 



4. Braised Whale Roast. 



3^ pounds whale meat. 
2 tablespoons butter, 
i bay leaf. 



1 teaspoon pickling spice. 
3 sprigs parsley. 
1 onion. 



Wash meat with hot soda water (1 tablespoon soda to 1 quart water). Drain 
thoroughly and sear well on all sides in a hot greased frying pan. Dot the sur- 
face well with butter or pieces of beef fat, and put in a covered meat pan, with a 
small cheesecloth bag containing bay leaf, spice, parsley, and sliced onion. 
Add hot water to the depth of 1 inch. Cook very slowly in a moderate oven for 
about 5 hours, basting well with fat and water every 15 minutes, gradually 
allowing the water to lessen. Serve hot with Brown Onion Sauce. 



BEOWN ONION SAUCE. 



3 tablespoons butter. 1 onion. 

3 tablespoons browned flour. £ teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce. 

i teaspoon salt. Pepper. 

1 cup whale stock or water. 

Melt the butter, add the browned flour, salt, and pepper, and stir until 
smooth. Add the whale stock or water and onion, which has been sliced and 
fried in butter until light brown. Cook the mixture in a double boiler, stirring 
occasionally, for about 20 mintes. Just before serving add the Worcestershire 
Sauce. 

5. Whale Steak. 6 

Cut the whale meat into individual steaks and dip each steak in salted milk, 
then in finely sifted dry bread crumbs. Rub each with the juice of a grated 
onion ; place on an oiled pan, sprinkle a little olive or other oil on top, and put 
in a very hot oven for 10 minutes. When nicely browned, remove from the 
oven and serve immediately. 



6. Whale Steak en Casserole. 



1| teaspoons salt. 
Pepper. 



11 pounds whale meat. 
2 onions. 
2 carrots. 

Cut meat into small steaks, about one-half inch thick; wash thoroughly in 
hot soda water. Sear well in a greased frying pan. Place in a covered baking 
dish or casserole with the onions which have been sliced ; cover with boiling 
water and simmer in a moderate oven for about 8£ hours. Add the carrots, 
which have been cut into thin slices, the salt and pepper, and cook 1 hour longer. 
Remove the meat to a hot platter and serve with boiled rice, brown, or tomato 
sauce, and garnish with parsley. 



7. Whale Croquettes. 



3 cups cold roast whale meat. 
2 sprigs parsley. 
1 large onion. 
\\ teaspoons salt. 



Pepper. 

3 tablespoons melted butter. 
i teaspoon savory (optional). 
6-8 walnut meats (optional). 



Chop and mix the meat, parsley, and onion; add the salt, pepper, butter, 
savory, and nut meats. Moisten with just sufficient gravy to hold the mixture 

° Recipe furnished by American Pacific Whaling Co., Bay City, Wash. 
b Recipe furnished by Mrs. Evelene Spencer, Portland, Oreg. 



together. Shape into croquettes, roll in bread crumbs, dip in slightly beaten 
egg to which a tablespoon of cold water has been added, roll again in crumbs 
and fry in deep fat for about 8 minutes. Garnish with parsley and sweet 
pickles and serve at once.° 

8. Whale Patty. 6 

Cut whale meat in slices ; cook in a little water with salt, pepper, and lemon 
juice. Drain into a deep dish with a few fresh minced mushrooms and tomatoes 
cut in pieces. Thicken with oat flour, and pour this sauce upon the meat. 
Cover with pie paste, and finish cooking in a moderate oven for 15 minutes. 

9. Fillet of Whale with Musheooms. 

2 pounds whale meat. I Salt. 

3 tablespoons butter. I Pepper. 

Cut the whale meat into small steaks. Melt the butter in a frying pan, 
sprinkle the meat with salt and pepper, and let it stand in the frying pan for 
1 hour. Then put the frying pan on a quick fire and brown the pieces of meat 
on both sides. Serve the meat hot in the center of a dish with the following 
Mushroom Sauce. 

MUSHROOM SAUCE. 

1 tablespoon flour. ] | pound mushrooms. 

1 cup water. | 2 tablespoons lemon juice. 

Make a sauce by putting the flour into the melted butter from which meat 
has been removed. When well blended add the water and mushrooms, which 
have been peeled, washed, and cut up, and lastly the meat. Cook until the 
mushrooms are done. Add the lemon juice and serve the meat in the center 
of a dish with the mushrooms around it. Pour the gravy over the meat. 



10. Whale Stew. 



2 pounds whale meat. 
2 onions. 
2 carrots. 
Bay leaf. 
Celery salt 



Salt. 

Pepper. 

Worcestershire Sauce. 

4 tablespoons flour. 

I teaspoon curry powder. 



Cut the meat into l£-inch cubes; slice the onions and cut the carrots into 
one-half-inch cubes. Place the meat, onions, carrots, and bay leaf in a sauce- 
pan and let simmer for about 2 hours, or until tender. Season with salt, 
celery salt, pepper, and Worcestershire Sauce. Make a thickening of flour and 
water, add the curry powder, and stir into the stew. Let it boil up and serve. 



3 pounds whale meat 
1 onion. 
1 carrot. 



11. Whale Pot Roast. 



Flour. 

Salt. 

Pepper. 



Wash and wipe the meat thoroughly, rub over with salt, dredge with flour, 
and brown on all sides in a little fat in the frying pan. Then place in a pot or 
casserole with the sliced onion and carrot, the fat in which the meat was 
browned and a little water. Cover and let cook from 2 to 3 hours. When 
tender, thicken and flavor the gravy and serve the roast hot. 

° The same mixture may be mixed with a beaten egg, formed into meat cakes, and 
sauteed in a pan or made into whale hash and served on toast. 

* Recipe furnished by Delmonico, New York City. 

* Recipe furnished by Mrs. Evelene Spencer, Portland, Oreg. 



12. Whale a la Mode. 



3* pounds whale meat. 3 sprigs parsley. 

£ pound salt pork. 3 cloves. 

3 onions. 6 bay leaves. 

3 carrots. & teaspoon thyme. 

1 turnip. 

Wipe the meat thoroughly with a damp cheesecloth wrung out of fresh cold 
water. Cut the pork into strips about 2 inches long. Make incisions in the 
whale meat and place the pork in them. Slice 1 onion and 1 carrot into thin 
slices and put them in a saucepan with the parsley, cloves, bay leaves, and 
thyme ; add the whale meat with 1 quart consomme. Simmer slowly for 3 
hours ; take the meat out and strain the liquor in which it was cooked. Put 
the meat with its liquor into a saucepan with the remaining carrots, onions, 
and turnip, cut into slices. Simmer slowly for 1£ hours, skim off the grease 
from liquor and serve. 



13. Beaised Whale with Carrots. 



i cup vinegar. 

2 cups carrot. 

1 teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce. 

Flour. 



4 pounds whale meat. 

£ pound salmon. 

Salt. 

Pepper. 

4 tablespoons olive oil. 

Wipe the meat thoroughly Math cheesecloth, and cold water. Make in- 
cisions in the whale meat and insert slices of salmon in them. Season with 
salt and pepper and roast for 30 minutes, basting with the olive oil. Add a 
little water, the vinegar, the carrots cut into dice, and the Worcestershire Sauce, 
and cook until tender. Place the meat on a dish, and surround with the car- 
rots. Make a sauce of the liquid by thickening w T ith flour and pour over all. 



14. Broiled Whale. 6 

Cut the whale steaks the desired thickness, preferably about one-half inch, 
cross-grained of the meat, and pound a bit with back of cleaver to insure tender- 
ness; salt and pepper well, use a little oil and broil the same as any other steak. 

15. Boiled Whale Meat with Vegetables. 



3 pounds whale meat. 

1 onion, small. 

2 potatoes. 



2 ripe tomatoes. 

Salt. 

Pepper. 



Place the meat in a vessel with sufficient water to cover it, and bring it to 
the boiling point. Remove the scum and add onion, potatoes, and tomatoes, 
which have been cut into 1-inch cubes. Season and continue the boiling until 
the meat and vegetables are tender. Place the meat on a platter and arrange 
the vegetables around it. 

16. Cannelon of Whale." 



1 egg. 

§ teaspoon savory. 

i teaspoon sage. 

8 chopped walnut meats. 

4 tablespoons butter. 

§ cup boiling water. 



f cup cold roast whale. 

2 onions. 

2 sprigs parsley. 

\\ teaspoons salt 

Pepper. 

\ teaspoon nutmeg. 

£ cup dried bread crumbs. 

Mix and chop together the meat, onions, and parsley, add nutmeg, salt, pepper, 
bread crumbs, slightly beaten egg, savory, sage, and, if desired, the walnut 

° Recipe furnished by Delmonico, New York City. 

6 Recipe furnished by chef, Palace Hotel. San Francisco. 

c Recipe furnished by American Pacific Whaling Co., Bay City, Wash. 



meats. Mix thoroughly and shape into a loaf about 6 inches in length. Dot 
the surface generously with butter. Place in a hot oven for 5 minutes. Reduce 
the heat and finish cooking in a moderate oven for about 25 minutes. Baste 
every 5 minutes with butter melted in the boiling water. Garnish with slices 
of ripe tomato and serve with Tomato Parsley Sauce. 



TOMATO PAKSLEY SAUCE. 



4 tablespoons butter. 

4 tablespoons flour, browned. 

f teaspoon salt. 

Pepper. 

I cup tomato juice. 



1 onion. 

i teaspoon sugar. 

1 sprig parsley. 

1 cup whale stock or water. 

5 teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce. 



Melt the butter, add the browned flour, salt, and pepper, and stir until a 
smooth paste is formed. Add the sliced onion and sugar to the tomato juice and 
simmer 10 minutes, then strain. Add the strained tomato juice and parsley 
chopped fine, to the hot whale stock or water. Stir the two mixtures together 
and cook in a double-boiler for about 20 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add 
Worcestershire Sauce and serve. 

17. Whale Bobotee. 



4 cups cold roast whale. \ teaspoon savory. 

1 onion, large. Pepper. 

\\ teaspoons salt. 4 cups mashed potato. 
1 teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce. 

Mix whale meat, chopped coarsely, with the finely chopped onion; add the 
salt, Worcestershire Sauce, savory, and pepper, and put in a buttered baking 
dish. Cover with the mashed potato and place in a moderate oven for about 
30 minutes, allowing the potatoes to brown slightly. Serve while hot. 

CANNED WHALE. 

18. Whale Meat Chowder* 



1 can whale meat. 

1 cup milk. 

1 tablespoon rye flour. 

£ cup boiled carrots. 

1 tablespoon grated onion. 



\ cup celery. 

1 teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce. 

Salt. 

Pepper. 



Boil the whale meat in its own liquor, to which a little water has been added, 
for 15 minutes. Drain and flake the meat. Add the milk to the liquor and 
thicken with rye flour ; then add the boiled carrots cut into dice, grated 
onion, finely cut celery, Worcestershire Sauce, salt, and pepper. Cook until the 
celery is tender, then add the meat. Heat thoroughly and serve in timbals ; or 
place in a baking dish and cover lightly with bread crumbs, and brown. 

19. Whale Meat Pie. 



Worcestershire Sauce. 

Salt. 

Pepper. 



1 pound canned whale meat. 

3 onions. 

3 tablespoons butter. 

\ pound bacon. 

Cut the meat into small pieces. Slice onions and put in a frying pan with 
butter and cook slowly until browned. Cut the bacon into small pieces and 
fry for a few minutes. Drain and moisten with Worcestershire Sauce. Mix 
all with the canned whale meat, season to taste and put into a deep dish which 
has been lined with pie crust, moistening the edges of the dish so that the pie 
crust will adhere. Cut some pie crust the size of thu dish and place on top. 
Brush the top with a beaten egg, cook in oven until well browned, and serve. 
It may be made into individual pies. 



° Recipe furnished by American Pacific Whaling Co., Bay City, Wash. 
6 Recipe furnished by Mrs. Henry B. Ward, Urbana, 111. 



8 



20. Minced Whale with Scrambled Eggs. 



1 pound canned whale meat. 

8 eggs. 

1 tablespoon butter. 



Salt. 

Pepper. 

Nutmeg. 



Chop meat finely, moisten with 2 beaten eggs, add butter, salt, pepper, and 
nutmeg, and mix thoroughly. Put in a saucepan on the fire and heat slowly 
for 10 minutes. Make a cake of the meat and place on a serving dish. Pour 
6 scrambled eggs over the meat, garnish with parsley, and serve. 

21. Whale Meat with Sauce. 



1 cup consomme". 

2 egg yolks. 
Nutmeg. 
Salt. 
Pepper. 



8 slices canned whale meat. 

1 bunch parsley. 

2 onions. 
1 tablespoon butter. 

1 tablespoon flour. 

Make a sauce by melting the butter, add the flour and blend well, then add 
the consomg. Cut the parsley and onions into very fine pieces, add to the mix- 
ture and boil for 10 minutes. Add the beaten yolks of the eggs, season with 
nutmeg, salt and pepper, and stir well. Add the whale meat and allow to sim- 
mer for 10 minutes. Serve hot. 

22. Whale Meat with Sauce. 

6 slices canned whale meat. 1 cup water. 

2 onions. Salt. 

1 tablespoon flour. Pepper. 

1 tablespoon vinegar. 

Arrange the meat in a deep pan and prepare the following sauce: 
Slice onions and fry in butter until browned, add flour, and blend well. Then 
add the vinegar and water, season, and cook slowly for about 15 minutes. 
Pour the sauce over the whale meat, and allow to simmer for about 30 min- 
utes. Serve hot. 

THE PORPOISE. 

23. Poepoise Steak. 

Cut steaks one-half inch thick; season well with salt and pepper, and broil 
very well done. Serve at once with melted butter and lemon juice, and garnish 
with parsley. 

24. Porpoise Cutlets. 

Cut steaks one-half inch thick, and season well. Roll in bread crumbs and 
egg, then crumbs again, and saut§ slowly until tender. Serve with highly sea- 
soned Tomato Sauce. 



TOMATO SAUCE. 



\ can tomatoes. 
1 teaspoon sugar. 
8 peppercorns. 
1 cup brown stock. 



1 bay leaf. 

\ teaspoon salt. 

4 tablespoons butter. 

4 tablespoons flour. 



Cook tomatoes about 20 minutes with sugar, peppercorns, bay leaf, and salt ; 
rub through a strainer, and add the stock. Brown the butter, add flour, and 
when well browned gradually add the liquor. 



25. Braised Porpoise. 



3 pounds porpoise meat. 
2 thin slices fat salt pork. 
\ teaspoon peppercorns. 
Salt. 
Pepper. 



Carrot 
Turnip 
Onion 
Celery 



cup each, cut in dice. 



• Recipe furnished by chef, Nueces Hotel, Corpus Christi, Tex. 



9 

Fry out the pork and remove the scraps. Wash meat thoroughly, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and brown the entire surface in pork 
fat. Place in a deep granite pan and surround with vegetables, peppercorns, 
and 3 cups boiling water ; cover closely, and bake for about 4 hours in a very 
slow oven, basting every half hour and turning after second hour. Serve with 
thin brown gravy to which Sherry or Claret wine has been added. 

26. Boiled Porpoise. 

Wash the meat thoroughly and plunge it into boiling salted water (1 table- 
spoon salt to 2 quarts of water) to which one-fourth cup vinegar, a bit of bay 
leaf, one-half teaspoon peppercorns, and a minced onion have been added. 
Allow it to boil for 5 minutes and then simmer until done. Cook until the flesh 
is tender and serve with Tartar Sauce. 

TAETAE SAUCE. 



1 tablespoon lemon juice. I teaspoon salt. 

1 teaspoon vinegar. 4 tablespoons butter. 

1 tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce. 

Heat the lemon juice, vinegar, Worcestershire Sauce, and salt in a small 
enamel pan over hot water. Brown the butter in a saucepan and add to the 
first mixture. 

27. Fillet of Porpoise. 

Cut porpoise meat into small fillets, and poach in water to which salt has 
been added. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, put in a shallow pan, and bake for 
about 12 minutes in a hot oven. Arrange on a rice border, garnish with parsley, 
and serve with Creole Sauce. 

CREOLE SAUCE. 



2 tablespoons chopped onion. 6 olives, stoned. 

4 tablespoons green pepper, finely 1£ cups Brown Sauce. 

chopped. Salt. 

2 tablespoons butter. Pepper. 

2 tomatoes. Sherry wine. 

I cup sliced mushrooms. 

Cook onion and pepper with butter for about 5 minutes ; add tomatoes, mush- 
rooms, and olives, and cook for about 2 minutes; then add the Brown Sauce; 
bring to the boiling point and add the wine to taste. 

28. Corned Porpoise. 

Lay cuts of about 5 pounds in brine as for corned beef for about 15 days ; 
boil and cool off. Corned porpoise is very good served cold with Tartar Sauce 
to which finely chopped peppers and Worcestershire Sauce have been added. 

29. Porpoise Stew No. I. 6 



2 pounds porpoise meat. Salt. 

4-6 potatoes. Pepper. 

2 onions. 4 tablespoons flour. 

2 carrots. Water. 

1 turnip. 

Wash the porpoise meat thoroughly ; cut the best portions into 1-inch cubes. 
Put the poorer portions of meat into cold water enough to cover them, and 
cook slowly. Fry out some pieces of beef fat in a frying pan and remove the 
scraps. Roll the best portions of the meat in flour, put them into a frying pan, 
and cook until they are brown (stirring them with a knife so that all surfaces 
may be browned). Brown the onions also. Put the meat and onions into the 



a Recipe furnished by chef, Nueces Hotel, Corpus Christi, Tex. 
b Recipe furnished by Victory Kitchen, San Antonio, Tex. 



10 

kettle in which the stew is to be cooked ; rinse out the frying pan with hot 
water and turn the water into the stew. Cover the meat with boiling water 
and cook it slowly, for about 2 hours, or until the meat is tender. Remove the 
poorer portions of meat. Cut the carrots, turnip, and potatoes into one-half 
inch dice and slice the onions. Add the vegetables (excepting the potatoes) 
and cook for 40 minutes longer. Add the potatoes and seasoning and cook 20 
minutes longer. If a thicker stew is desired, add the thickening of flour and 
water and cook 5 minutes longer. 



30. Porpoise Stew No. 2.° 

1 onion. 

i cup flour. 

Salt. 

Pepper. 

Chopped parsley. 



5 pounds porpoise meat. 
4 cups potatoes. 
$ cup carrot. 
I cup tomato. 
Celery salt. 

Wash the meat thoroughly and soak in strong soda water overnight. Cut the 
meat into 1^-inch cubes, sprinkle with salt and pepper and dredge with flour. 
Cook in hot suet, stirring constantly that the surface may be quickly seared. 
When well browned, put in kettle and rinse frying pan with hot water that 
none of the goodness may be lost. Cover with boiling water, add celery salt and 
parsley, and simmer slowly for about 3 hours until the meat is tender. Cut the 
potatoes into ^-inch slices, the carrot and tomato into i-inch cubes, and the 
onion into thin slices. Brown the vegetables, except the potatoes, in hot suet 
and add to the stew, cooking about 1 hour longer. Parboil potatoes 5 minutes, 
add to the stew 15 minutes before taking from the fire. Thicken with flour 
mixed with enough cold water to pour easily and cook 5 minutes longer. 

31. Porpoise Pot Roast. 

3 pounds porpoise meat. Salt. 

1 onion. Pepper. 

Wash the meat thoroughly, rub over with salt and flour, and sear on all sides 
in fat in a hot frying pan, thus retaining the juices. Then place the meat in a 
pot with the sliced onion, the fat in which meat was browned, and a little 
water. Cover and cook slowly, keeping a small quantity of water on the meat 
for 2 or 3 hours until the meat is tender. 

32. Roast Poepoise With Vegetables. 6 



I dozen peppercorns. 

Flour. 

Salt. 

Pepper. 



3 pounds porpoise meat. 
2 thin slices fat salt pork. 

1 carrot. 

2 onions, small. 
1 turnip. 

Wash the meat, rub with salt, and dredge with flour. Cook the pork in a 
kettle until brown and then remove the scraps. Put the meat in the hot fat 
and sear all the surfaces. Slice the carrot, turnip, and onions. Lay the meat 
in a tireless cooker kettle, add the peppercorns, salt, and pepper, and arrange 
the vegetables around the meat. Add 1 cup of hot water and cook for about 

4 hours, using 2 radiators. 

* Recipe furnished by Gedney's Restaurant. Snn Marcos. Tex. 

"Recipe furnished hy Mrs. Charles S. Smith, director, home economics, Southwest State 
Normal, San Marcos, Tex. 



WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE '. 1918 



\ 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 





014 524 258 7 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



014 524 258 7 4* 



Hollinger Corp. 
pH8.5 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 





014 524 258 7 



Hollinger Corp. 
pH 8.5